FSC Chemistry Chapter 9 | 1st Year

FSC Chemistry Chapter 9 | 1st Year

FSC Chemistry Chapter 9 | 1st Year


                           Chapter nine Notes | Chemistry first Year

“Solutions”
Index
Concept of an answer
Concentration Units of resolution
Types of Solutions
Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions
Vapour Pressures of Liquid-Liquid Solutions
Solubility and Solubility Curves
Colligative Properties of Solutions
Energetics of resolution
Hydration and chemical reaction
Key Points
A solution, on average, may be a homogenised mixture of 2 or a lot of styles of totally different molecular or ionic substances. The substance, that is gift in an exceedingly amount|great quantity|profusion|lots of abundance} is termed a solvent and also the alternative in tiny quantity is termed a matter.
Solutions containing comparatively lower concentrations of matter square measure known as dilute solutions, whereas those containing comparatively higher concentrations of solutes square measure known as focused solutions. Solubility is that the concentration of a matter in an exceedingly resolutiononce the answer is at equilibrium with the matter at a selected temperature.
The concentration of an answer could also be expressed in an exceedingly variety of the way.
Percentage composition
Molarity
Molality
Mole fraction
Parts per million
Solution could also be ideal or non-ideal. Those solutions, that adjust Raoult’s law square measure ideal solutions. Raoult’s law tells U.S. that the lowering of force per unit area of a solvent by an answer, at a relentless temperature, is directly proportional to the concentration of matter.
Many solutions don't behave ideally, as they show deviations from Raoult’s law. an answer might show positive or negative deviation from Raoult’s law. Such liquid mixtures, that distill while not amendment in composition, square measure known as azeotropic mixtures.
Colligative properties of an answer square measure those properties, that rely upon the amount of matter and solvent molecules or ions and square measure independentof the character of matter. Lowering of force per unit area, elevation of boiling purpose and depression of melting point and {osmotic pressure|pressure|pressure level|force per unit square measurea} are the necessary colligative properties of resolution.




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